Diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic disease that occurs as a result of increased blood sugar levels. Many people live with diabetes for many years and do not pay attention to the obvious signs of the disease. Insulin deficiency in the body or its ineffective effect can affect the rise in sugar level. It is important to note that diabetes is a disease that has its own varieties. Basically, people with diabetes are divided into 2 types: insulin dependent (first type of diabetes) and insulin independent (second type). This disease is incurable, and if a patient is diagnosed with this ailment, it will accompany him throughout his life.
Often people suffering from this disease are interested in the topic of nutrition and food products that can be used in food to normalize and balance metabolism in the body. The preference for products should be attributed to vegetables, fruits, meats and dairy products. Today, doctors believe that proper nutrition is the best prevention for diabetes. If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes, you need to find the appropriate treatment (limit the intake of additional medications) and follow the correct diet. The most important thing is not to self-medicate when diagnosing such a disease, but to go to a consultation with an endocrinologist who can tell you all about diabetes, prescribe the necessary treatment, and also tell you how to behave correctly and actually live with diabetes. Many do not even think about how dangerous this disease is and how many people in the world die due to a late diagnosis or complications caused by diabetes. In this article, we will look at the basic dietary rules for each type of diabetes, and we will also consider a list of foods that are better to refuse and to which, on the contrary, we give preference.
Diet for type 1 diabetes mellitus
The first type of diabetes is more dangerous and serious. When diagnosing this type, a person is assigned insulin injections, which will have to be carried out throughout his life. Many do not follow a diabetes diet, and because of this, the disease can progress rapidly, lead to complications, and lead to various diseases.
The main treatment for patients with the first type of diabetes is to choose the appropriate insulin and in the necessary doses. It is very important that the doctor correctly selects the pharmaceutical preparation, its dosage, and also helps to formulate the necessary diet, since it can also be individualized. Correct treatment is essential for a diabetic patient. Since if the treatment is not started on time, the consequences can be dire. Of course, insulin by itself will normalize blood sugar levels, but with the right diet, the number of injections per day can decrease. And do not forget that only your treating doctor should prescribe treatment and diet, since the first type of diabetes is quite dangerous and it is better not to "play" with it.
There is a special system to calculate the required dose of insulin and calculate the food eaten, this system is called "Bread Unit". According to this system, a unit of bread equals 10-15 grams of carbohydrates. In simple terms, a unit of bread is, for example, an orange or a slice of bread. As a general rule, doctors issue a table on which the patient can mark and control the level of bread units.
By the way, it should be noted that all doctors recommend keeping a diabetic diary, in which it will be necessary to indicate all the foods consumed during the day, as well as their quantity. This will help the doctor to monitor your disease and identify certain nuances. With the first type of diabetes, the main thing is to adhere to certain rules that will in no way distinguish you from a healthy person. The main thing is that a food prem does not exceed 7 units of bread. It is very important to calculate the insulin dose and bread units before each meal. And the main thing you need to give up is sweet drinks (lemonade, energy drinks, sweet tea, carbonated juices and just plain sweet), as they have an excessively large amount of sugar and this can significantly harm the patient's well-being and dramatically increase thesugar level.
Diet for type 2 diabetes
Most of the time, it is due to obesity or banal overeating that a person can develop type 2 diabetes. With this disease, the main task is to normalize metabolism and carbohydrates. Do not forget that diabetes mellitus appears not only due to the consumption of large amounts of sugar, but banal overeating can also provoke the development of the disease. The body does not make enough insulin or the cells simply lose their sensitivity to it. As a general rule, doctors recommend correct treatment (with pills), a diet and an active lifestyle (what you need is daily physical activity).
The necessary diet for patients with the second type of diabetes, and these patients are often overweight and overweight, can be properly selected and prescribed by an endocrinologist, since this disease is endocrine in nature. When prescribing a diet, the doctor should interview the patient and clarify his sex, body weight, age category, as well as the presence of physical activity.
The second type of diet is based on weight loss and normalization of metabolism. Often times, the doctor can calculate the correct number of calories per day. As a general rule, the amount of calories is calculated from the proportions per 1 kilogram of body: 20 calories for women and 25 for men. So, if you want, you can independently calculate the required number of calories throughout the day. If a person has been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, it is very important to remember that the diet will need to be adhered to continuously. That is why it is very important to compose a diet so that it is tasty, healthy and varied. But do not forget that high-calorie foods and foods that increase blood sugar levels must be completely eliminated.
When planning a diabetes diet, it is very important to remember to consume more foods that contain plant fiber and water. Such products will help to satisfy the appetite, and at the same time they will not be deposited on the body with extra kilos. The main thing is to lose weight, but this must be done carefully enough not to gain even more kilograms afterwards.
Calories and their allowed amount during the day
People with diabetes can often lose their diet due to acute and severe hunger and food restriction. It is important to remember that the main thing in the diet is not to count the number of calories ingested, but simply to eat the right foods. In no case should you count calories and try to limit them, since this, on the contrary, can only exacerbate the disease and worsen the patient's well-being. Scientists argue that it is nutrition that mainly affects the development of diabetes mellitus and the appearance of concomitant diseases.
There is the so-called low carb diet, which of course will force you to give up some foods, even the ones you used to love and eat constantly. At the same time, you can choose the right foods, and the diet will be quite tasty and satisfying. By just eating the right diet, you can control your blood sugar levels, and food can be just as tasty, but also healthy. By the way, in 2012, scientists from Dubai conducted a study on the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on the condition and well-being of patients, as it turned out that patients who adhered to this diet were less likely to break down andBlood sugar levels were perfectly controlled, the treatment was less painful and with practically no special restrictions on the amount of food.
Fruit that can be eaten with diabetes
In diabetes mellitus, special attention is paid to fruits, since they are fruits that contain a lot of fiber and also concentrate many useful vitamins, trace elements and minerals. Compared to other products, its concentration is several times higher. It should be noted that they contain mainly fructose and sucrose, but glucose is practically absent.
If we completely compare all possible fruits, only some of them can be distinguished, as only certain fruits provide some value for the body. In addition, it should be noted that it is not recommended to consume all fruits, some fruits, on the contrary, are contraindicated for diabetics.
Among the fruits that are recommended for diabetics are: grapefruit, lemons, oranges, apples, apricots, peaches, pears, pomegranates, a variety of nuts (it is recommended to use dried apricots, prunes, dried apples), amongberries can be noticed - cherries, blueberries, currants, currants, blackberries. But, for example, watermelons and melons should be eaten in moderation, as they contain more carbohydrate components. As you already understood, it is necessary to consume acidic varieties of fruits and berries, they will be more useful and will not sharply and strongly increase blood sugar levels.
Many diabetics ask exactly the question of allowed foods, since nutrition is one of the most important factors for them. We will provide you with a list of foods that are recommended to use, but I would like to point out that this is only a rough list. A more precise diet for diabetes mellitus should be determined only by your attending physician, since he knows all your pathologies and the history of the disease. So what foods can you eat?
- vegetable or mushroom soup, okroshka, low-fat fish broths;
- lean meats: chicken, rabbit, beef, veal;
- it is better to take bread of the second grade of flour, either rye or wheat, bread with bran;
- low-fat fish, but you can only use it boiled or baked, fried fish should be eliminated from the diet. Canned foods can be consumed, but it is important to pay attention that they must be in their own juice, other types of canned foods are prohibited;
- of cereals, preference should be given to porridge made of wheat, barley, buckwheat, oats and pearl barley;
- eggs can also be consumed, but no more than 2 eggs per week, and only protein is better, but it is better to limit the amount of yolk;
- low-fat dairy products: cottage cheese, milk, yogurts, as well as types of low-fat hard cheese;
- of fruits and berries, preference should be given to non-sweet varieties (apples, kiwi, grapefruit);
- You can eat compote, jelly and even sweets, but it is very important that they are based on sorbitol or saccharin;
- cucumber, pumpkin, tomato, pumpkin, lettuce, cabbage, and eggplant are the preferred vegetables. It is very good to use these raw vegetables (for example, in a salad);
- potatoes can be eaten in moderation and it is very important to soak them in water before cooking, since when soaking they leave starch, which is harmful in diabetes and can increase sugar;
- herbal teas, berry juice, uzvar.
As you can see, the list of allowed foods is quite large and the main thing is to simply adapt to proper nutrition and consume more vegetables and fruits. A diabetes diet can be quite tasty, the main thing is to understand that your health and well-being depend on it.
There are certain foods that are contraindicated and prohibited for diabetics, as they can significantly increase blood sugar. After all, it is nutrition that affects sugar levels. What type of food is contraindicated and what products are better to refuse:
- fatty meat broth;
- whole wheat bread;
- fatty meat, it is better to give up pork, lamb, duck and goose. It is also necessary to exclude from your diet types of smoked meat, sausages and lard;
- flour products: cake, muffin and various types of cookies. Butter and puff pastry, as well as any product made with them, are strictly prohibited;
- coffee and any coffee drinks are worth giving up;
- fatty fish, salted or smoked fish, preserves (if cooked in oil or tomato);
- fried, spicy and fatty foods are completely contraindicated, as they will only increase sugar and can lead to the development of any other disease;
- salty cheeses, curd masses and only sweet and fatty cottage cheese, butter and cream;
- dairy products with a high percentage of fat content;
- legumes (peas, beans), varieties of salted and pickled vegetables;
- of fruits are prohibited: all kinds of grapes, bananas, dates, strawberries, figs;
- jam, sugar, chocolate and various sweet products;
- carbonated and energy drinks;
- juices containing high amounts of glucose (grape, multi-fruit), as well as sugar-based lemonade;
- of cereals, you should forget about white rice, semolina and any kind of pasta.
Properly selected dietary nutrition is very important for those with diabetes. A diet during diabetes is simply necessary and restricting certain foods can greatly facilitate the patient's life. So everything is in your hands, remember that by following a certain diet, the treatment will be much easier.
It is very important to remember that when diagnosing diabetes, the main thing is the right treatment and the right diet. For whatever reason, many forget about the diet and assume that the pills prescribed by the doctor or insulin normalize the sugar, and this is not entirely wrong, since frequent drops in sugar can lead to the development of other more serious ailments. . This disease often negatively affects vision, heart, and joints. With diabetes, many live happily ever after, but it must somehow be limited.
Proper treatment, nutrition, and a physically active lifestyle are the key to a long and happy life for a diabetic. Whatever type of diabetes is diagnosed, treatment is necessary in any case, so nutrition must be corrected immediately. Yes, diabetes mellitus is one of the incurable diseases (although scientists have been trying for many years to find a cure for a complete cure), which can cause other diseases, but if you learn to live with it correctly, you will live a long and happy life. Remember, quality diabetes diet and treatment are the most important.